What is a battery?

Battery is  a collection of one or more cells in which the chemical reactions create a flow of electrons in a circuit. All the batteries are made up of three basic components such as anode with negative polarity, cathode with positive polarity, and also have electrolyte in it, which helps for the chemical reaction with anode and cathode. Whenever there is an anode and a cathode of a battery is connected to a circuit, a chemical reaction takes place between the anode and the electrolyte. This reaction causes electrons to flow through the circuit

Distinguish between battery and cell:

Cell-cell is a single unit. It uses to convert chemical energy into electric energy. Based on the chemical material present in the battery, it will be divided into two different types .one is wet, and another one is dry. The cell is compact. It is used for small voltage requiring application .but the cell only can supply voltage for a lesser is used for clocks and small light applications. Cost-wise it is compatible.


The battery is the combination of two or more cells. It is a large unit. It comes in two types one is chargeable and another one is non-chargeable. It’s available in the market in smaller sizes and also bigger sizes. The battery will supply the power for a longer period. The battery is generally used for many applications mobile phones, laptops, and other electronic appliances. The battery is very expensive.

What are the types of batteries?

  • Nickel-cadmium battery
  • Nickel metal hydride battery
  • Lead-acid battery
  • Lithium polymer battery
  • Lithium-ion battery

What is a nickel-cadmium battery?

Nickel-cadmium battery has electrodes. Which is made up of nickel oxide and hydroxide, metallic cadmium, and the electrolyte is alkaline potassium hydroxide. It converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Nickel-cadmium battery contains nickel hydroxide and an anode is cadmium hydroxide. Nickel-cadmium battery is used for any application such as mobile phones, desktop, camcorder, etc.,

 Nickel cadmium battery

  • Its power with-stand for a longer period.
  • Compared to other batteries the charging and discharging factor is good.
  • Nickel-cadmium battery has High energy storing capabilities.


  • Its cost is expensive.
  • It contains hazardous materials
  • It will be affected by the memory storage and utilization is high.

Distinguish between NiCad and lithium batteries:

The nickel-metal hydride batteries are made up of hydrogen .so they hold a lot of energy. But the lithium-ion batteries are made up of carbon. It is highly reactive. But it can store a lot of energy. Lithium batteries are less weight and compact in size. But nickel batteries are heavier and large.

What is a Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery?


Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries are high-energy storing batteries. It does not have toxic mainly used in mobile phones and laptops.

What is the Advantage of Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries?

  • Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries have 30 to 40 percent stand capacity.
  • It has a higher energy density.
  • It is eco-friendly.

Disadvantages of Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) batteries:

  • Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries have a limited lifetime.
  • It has a lesser discharge current.
  • Self-discharge is high percent.
  • It should be stored in a cool place.
  • It requires high maintenance.
  • It is more expensive than a Nickel cadmium battery.

What is a Lead acid battery?

The lead-acid battery is the first rechargeable battery. Which is made up of pure leads and led oxide? It acts as electrodes and has electrolytes as sulphuric acid.

Advantage of the Lead-acid battery:

The lead-acid battery is less expensive.

Its manufacturing procedure is easy and simple.

The lead-acid battery is a reliable product.

Less self-discharge.

It requires less maintenance.

Disadvantages of the Lead-acid battery:

The lead-acid battery has a lesser energy density.

Not eco-friendly.

Heat dissipation occurs when un-proper charging happens.

Mobile phone batteries:

  • There are two batteries mainly used in mobile phone
  • Lithium polymer battery
  • Lithium ion battery

What is a Lithium polymer battery?

Lithium polymer battery is the latest technology battery. It is currently available in the market. It is made up of plastic surrounded by is available in the size of 5.2mm to 10mm thickness for smartphones. It does not affect by over usage of applications and memory storage.

Advantages of lithium-polymer battery

  • Lithium polymer battery is available in slim size.
  • Lithium polymer battery comes in different shape.
  • Lithium polymer battery has lesser weight.
  • Lithium polymer battery has Good power efficient  
  • Lithium polymer battery manufacturing cost less.

A disadvantage of lithium polymer battery:


High heat produces large heat when it uses the high application.

In case of any damage happen, it produces fire. It is considered as one of the dangerous batteries.

What is a Lithium ion battery?


When the charge is passed through the battery. The lithium ions move from the graphite to the electrode through the electrolyte. Finally, the battery is charged by the potential difference. 

A lithium-ion battery is also one of the advanced battery technology. It consists of organic compounds. The lithium-ion battery has anode and cathode terminals. An electrode is a positive terminal and the graphite act as a negative terminal Lithium-ion battery does not affect large application usage and memory consumption. The self-discharge is the lessor.

Advantages of Lithium-ion battery

  • The lithium-ion battery has a High energy capacity.
  • Its Self-discharge is less.
  • Lithium-ion battery requires less maintenance
  • It is used for the high current application.


  • It needs a protection circuit to avoid the short circuit.
  • We need to keep this in a cool place.
  • Manufacturing cost is high.
  • It involves chemical reactions in case of damage and dent happens.

How to troubleshoot fault battery?

Here there are so many procedures given below.

Use a computer to check battery:

  • First, connect your phone to a laptop or desktop.
  • It will show the mobile phone is connected. if it’s connected, and then the charging connector is in good condition so there is no problem in the charging section in PCB.
  • Leave the phone for 30 minutes.
  • Now disconnect the mobile phone.
  • If the battery shows 30 percent or 25 percent charge.
  • Again reconnect the cable leave for 30 minutes.
  • Again disconnect the mobile phone and now check the charge level.
  • Now Charge level is 40 percent means it gradually getting a charge.
  • Now use a mobile phone .use YouTube, play video, use the camera for 15 minutes to check the charge level. If it is reduced 5 percent or 10 percent battery is ok.
  • But if the battery switched off after 15 minutes .we need to replace the new battery.

What are the symptoms to find a bad battery?

There are some reasons to find out the unhealthy battery

  • The Phonewill go to off condition .when you’re playing video or using youtube.
  • If the Phoneor Battery produces a lot of heat. When you use mobile.
  • when the BatteryBulges are indicates  100 percent its get damage
  • when the Phoneis Dead This may be happening because of battery issues
  • If The Phoneonly Shows get on when it is connected to ac supply or other new battery.
  • When the batteryis at fault, it will not hold power it will drain within few minutes.

 What is the reason for quick discharge in the battery?

Sometimes it’s not a battery fault .the discharge will happen because of the apps running in the background. If you want to know which battery is accessing a large battery go to Settings -press the Battery option – press the Battery usage option –finally it will show the Battery usage screen. in which you can see a list of apps, and then also it will display how much power is utilized by every app. if u don’t want an app that utilizes more power you can turn off the button on the screen .it will reduce power usage of the particular app.

 How to turn on the mobile phone?

If you are mobile is not turn on, disassemble your battery carefully. Before that, you must know how to disassemble your phone. First, remove the back cover. If the back cover is not screw type (or) fixed by a glove. You need to remove the back cover by using the bottom heater. After removing the back cover you need to remove the battery sometimes battery that comes with the glove is called a built battery. To remove the inbuilt battery you need to apply some heat it must be 60 degrees Celsius to 65 degrees Celsius. Then carefully remove the pull stickers finally remove the battery.

How to use a dc machine to check the battery?

  • By using the DC machine we can check the battery.
  • Keep the voltage 3.9 to 4 voltage in the Dc meter.
  • There are two probes present in the dc meter.
  • Connect the black probe on the negative side and the red probe on the positive side. Connect this DC meter red and black probe to the battery positive (+ve) and negative (-ve) side.
  • Some of the batteries will be mentioned +,-.if it did not mention you need to find out the +, – terminal by using a multimeter. When you connect the battery to the dc meter.
  • Set voltage as 4v .while you connect a battery to the dc meter it automatically shows an ampere value from zero to 0.2 or 0.4 or 0.6, up to 0.8 .that means the battery getting charged.
  • Leave it for half an hour. Again check battery values in the multimeter .it should come to 3.8 voltages, and then only it will get the cable of charging. Then connect a charger to mobile it will show charging symbol. That means it is started charging.

How to check the battery by using a multimeter?

  • First set the multimeter arrow on the Dc voltage side.
  • The multimeter has a black and red probe.
  • The black probes are denoted positive supply and the black probe denotes the negative supply in multimeter.
  • Then keep red and black probes on battery terminals. If the multimeter shows any value, then you are keeping it in the correct position.
  • That is red probe was on the positive position side. The Black probe was on the negative side. If the value is zero or less than 3.8 voltage then the battery may be dry (or) dead. if your keeping battery terminals in the wrong will show values with negative sign.for example (-3.8 v)

 how to keep the battery in a healthy condition?

check the usage of multiple apps

if u have multi apps for chatting, video calls, and money transferring and studying. it might be consuming a lot of power from the battery .so you need to always check when the battery is draining quickly. if any of the apps consuming power, if it not necessary, turn off its power consumption. reduce the running of background apps. if you’re not using it currently just close it. due to this, you can save your power.

Restriction of notification

the pop-up notifications and ads come for the whole day. will consume your battery power a lot. if you set up a ring alert or vibration that will also consume more power. finally a result, the phone battery will start draining very faster than usual. So turn off rings and vibration. if you don’t need notification from not frequently used apps just turned off it.

power off and charge Again 

if your device is not getting power .switch off your mobile phone and does charge.

check the  setting

follow the below instruction to keep your mobile in good condition

  • Keep the screen brightness at a lower level.
  • Don’t set the Auto-brightness ON.
  • AMOLED displays mobile phones allow a Dark Mode in certain You should try this to save a certain amount of power. 
  • set less  Sleep timeout.

Background Running apps

Some apps will run in the background. we won’t notice it. but this will consume more power. whereas, after they are closed, it will keep updating in the background .so due to this battery drain fast.if you notice that the mobile phone battery draining fast. you need to close these background apps. 

 Turn off GPS, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth

if You need GPS, wifi, or BlueTooth you can use. rest of the time keep it in off mode. because this will also consume more power.

Enable A Power-Saving Mode

A power-saving mode is used to disable all unwanted services and features in the device, it reduces the large burden on the battery. To enable this mode, navigate to Settings > Battery > Battery Saver.

Use Original Charger 

The mobile phone always comes with its original charger. because each mobile phone charger comes with some specification in voltage and ampere. if you connect the wrong charger it will affect the device, otherwise, it won’t get will produce use your brand charger.

Update Apps and Software System 

Why do we need to do a system update?

It helps to smoothen your phone performance. Mobile can automatically update its software. When it’s alert, carefully give time for an update on your mobile phone. For example, for Samsung mobile system update, it’s available in the mobile phone setting. Go to setting – press software – press install  now the system will be updated successfully


Prevention measures:

  • Delete recently installed third-party apps.
  • Recalibrate the touch screen.
  • Reset the device.

Reduce the Bad Charging Habits

The way you charge your device also will affect your device. so always don’t do below listed things.

  • always Avoid charging the battery to a full 100%
  • don’t leave it to drain completely to 0%… 
  • Don’t leave you are your phone charging overnight. It’s harmful to the battery .and it may lead to a fire.
  • Avoid using another charger always use your charger.
  • Keep your battery charging between 20-90% 
  • don’t use phones when it’s plugged in charging.
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