CCTV refers to Closed-Circuit Television, in which the system transmitting the video or any other media signal through connected wires and cables. In this closed circuit connection, the current can flow without any interruption. It is a surveillance system consisting of cameras, recorders, and displays for monitoring. In earlier days CCTV was using Video Home System (VHS) and Videocassette recorder (VCR), where the videos being recording on tape cassettes. Each camera was connected to a single VCR for recording purposes. Later comes the Digital Video Recorder (DVR), in which the digital network cameras were connected to the DVR that is connected to an Ethernet or a Wi-Fi. Analog CCTV recorders have a fixed number of camera ports, whereas Wi-Fi cameras are connected and Ethernet ports can be expanded at low cost. CCTV’s are used for monitoring places such as prisons, traffic, banks, transport services, airports, etc.
Importance of Using CCTV:
- It can be used as evidence if any suspicious activity took place.
- It helps employers for monitoring and tracking of workers, also visitor entering the office.
- Trespassers can be prevented from entering the unauthorized area.
- Used for tracking lost people and monitoring workers working at dangerous places.
- Preventing theft.
Parts of CCTV:
- CCTV Camera Mount.
- CCTV Lenses.
- CCTV Camera Cable.
- Video Balun.
- BNC Connector.
- 12v DC Adaptor.
- VPC Video Power Camera.
- Coaxial Cable.
- Four-Way Splitter.
- Centralized PSU.
- CCTV Microphone.
- POE Injector.
- Junction Box.
CCTV Camera Mount:
CCTV Camera Bracket for Box Cameras, Bullet Cameras. You can mount a standard CCTV camera to this bracket and install the camera on a ceiling or wall.
A CCTV lens is a piece of glass or plastic to focus the light from the environment onto the camera’s imaging sensor. This lens has an adjustable mechanism for focusing, the lens is adjusted to get the image as clear as possible.
CCTV Camera Cable:
CCTV Camera cables are designed for transmitting a complete video frequency with minimum distortion for security and surveillance. This cable is available in two variants, 4+1 and 3+1 CCTV Camera cable. CCTV cables are designed to optimize the quality of video signals.
The baluns always work in pairs, one is connected to the analog camera and the other one is connected to the DVR. With passive balun, it’s possible to run cables for around 200 to 300m based on the type of analog signal and the quality of the cable and balun that’s used.
A Video Balun uses twisted-pair wire instead of coaxial cable for the transmission of video. The word “balun” comes from combining the terms balanced and unbalanced. The function of a balun is to transform an unbalanced signal into a balanced signal.
The BNC connector is miniatures quick connect/disconnect radio frequency connector used for coaxial cable.
BNC connectors are used with miniature to subminiature coaxial cable in radio, television, and other radio-frequency electronic equipment, test instruments, and video signals.
12v DC Adaptor:
The 12 Volt Power Adapter provides a regulated 12 Volts DC output. A 12 Volt Adapter Power Supply is enclosed in a plastic protective case that comes with either an attached AC cord.
A power supply for electronic devices. Also called an “AC adapter” or “charger,” power adapters plug into a wall outlet and convert AC to a single DC voltage.
VPC Video Power Camera:
The VPC Module is an interface for the camera to provide power and obtain the video. The VPC module accessory includes USB-A to USB-mini B cable for power and communications, USB power supply, power adapter, MCX-to-BNC cable for analog video.
A coaxial cable is a type of electrical cable consisting of an inner conductor surrounded by a concentric conducting shield with the two separated by an insulating material. These cables also have a protective outer sheath. This is commonly used to convey data, video, and voice communications. It has also been used extensively within homes.
4 Way Splitter:
4-Way Coax Splitter- 5 to 1000 MHz Coax splitters are used to split a CATV signal so that it can be used for more than one device. They are simple plug-and-play devices that can be installed in minutes. By using this 4-way coaxial cable splitter for installation in residential and commercial places.
Central Power Supply available with 16 channels. Allows operating voltage for DVR, NVR, and cameras. Each channel output is thermal fuse protected. LED indicator is provided with each channel. If any fault occurs in one channel won’t affect all the cameras or a complete system.
Surveillance cameras come with built-in microphones that provide the easiest connection to a security video recorder. For HDCVI and network IP cameras, external audio inputs are used, once the mic is connected to the camera, audio is combined with the video signal and sent through the cable back to the HDCVI DVR or NVR, respectively.
A Poe is a Power over Ethernet injector that connects the Poe-enabled network device to a non-Poe LAN switch port. When a Poe injector is used there is no need to run AC power lines for the wireless access point, network camera, or IP phone. There is already an existing LAN cabling for delivering both DC power as well as data.
Junction Box is used to Centralize cable lines that run from recording devices to the security system camera components such as routers or switches. These junction boxes are made with universal, fitting various dimension cables and various numbers of cable lines used.
Types of CCTV:
Following are the different types of CCTVs
- Dome CCTV Camera
- Bullet CCTV Camera
- Infrared/Night Vision CCTV
- Network/IP CCTV
- Wireless CCTV Camera
- High-Definition HD CCTV
- Thermal Heat detection CCTV cameras
Dome CCTV Camera:
- Dome cameras are commonly used for both indoor and outdoor security and surveillance. The Dome shape of the camera makes it difficult for a person to predict which way the camera is facing.
- Unlike other cameras, it has a better view of having a 360-degree design. It can also cover all the sides of a large area that are under surveillance.
- The Dome camera’s position cannot be changed or altered by uninvited visitors or culprits, no moveable components can be accessed from outside.
- These models come with a 3-megapixel resolution that provides 1920 x 1440 resolutions.
Bullet CCTV Camera:
- Bullet cameras are long and cylindrical and are used for outdoor use.
- It provides long-distance viewing, with protective casings.
- The camera uses a shield against dust, dirt, and other natural elements.
- A bullet surveillance camera is small and shaped like a rifle bullet shell or a lipstick case.
- This camera can be easily mounted onto the ceilings and walls because they use a tri-axis type of mount.
- Not all bullet cameras are small. Infrared bullet cameras are larger in diameter.
Infrared/Night Vision CCTV:
- IR or night vision cameras use infrared light to view images in the dark.
- Infrared light cannot be seen, but it is present around us. There is a filter present between the camera’s lens and the sensor, that allows visible light to pass through during the daytime and blocking the infrared wavelengths.
- An infrared camera can detect and measures the infrared energy of objects. The camera converts that infrared data into an electronic image by measuring the temperature of the object.
- Night vision Cameras use optoelectronic image enhancement, which operates by sensing small amounts of infrared light which are reflected off objects and then electrically amplified by showing the image in glowing green.
- Any electrically conductive material always blocks infrared radiation. The greater the conductivity, the greater the blocking.
- For example, when Food is wrapped in aluminum foil. Aluminum foil is a highly conductive material. So, it will kill all infrared radiation.
- Night vision devices allow us to see in the dark. With quality night vision goggles and scopes you can see people, animals, and objects up to 1,000 yards away on a night. Likewise, Night vision monocular cameras let you take photographs and videos of things you can’t see in the dark with your bare eyes.
- An infrared camera contains an optical system that focuses infrared energy onto a special sensor that contains thousands of detector pixels arranged in a grid.
- Some of the additional features of Infrared cameras with a wide range of automated functions, allow voice annotations, enhance resolution, record and stream video of the images, and support analysis and reporting.
Network/IP CCTV :
- An Internet Protocol camera or IP camera is a type of digital video camera that receives control data and sends image data through an IP network.
- They are majorly used for surveillance; the recording can be done by using a local area network. It doesn’t require any recording device as used in Analog CCTV.
- An internet protocol (IP) camera uses software that connects directly to the internet to monitor your home or business. There is no requirement for a computer for transmitting video online.
- IP cameras capture images the same as a digital camera and compress the files to transmit over the network. IP cameras use a wired network connected through Ethernet cable to a broadband modem or router, or wirelessly through a Wi-Fi router.
- The IP camera connects to a network in the same way as any other standard network device such as a laptop, tablet, or printer.
- IP Cameras are set to by default with a special port called Port 80.
- High-definition IP cameras allow zoom-in capabilities. IP cameras also offer HD 1080p and even 4K resolution.
Wireless CCTV Camera:
- Wireless security cameras are easier to install, and they are more flexible for placing.
- The video signal and audio signal are transmitted over the internet or through the wireless network to a receiver that is connected to your viewing and recording device. Computers and Cloud storage accounts are being used to save the video footage for later viewing.
- Wireless security cameras are more often used for renters and people new to home security, or those are having a low budget.
- Not only are wireless security cameras less expensive than wired systems, but they’re also easier to move from one place to another place. Just unplug them, and you’re ready to go.
- It’s important to check that there are some limitations in using wireless security cameras. A wireless camera must maintain a signal and connection to your network to record and capture footage. If your connection is interrupted or disturbed, then the wireless security camera can’t send the data to your viewing device.
- If the camera is completely wireless, then its power supply is given through a battery. In this kind of arrangement, you’ll need to make sure to replace the battery before it dies.
- The signal range depends on a few factors, including your home’s building materials, other wireless devices in the area, and any walls or objects through which the signal has to pass. Standard drywall and glass windows may not impact the strength of the camera’s wireless signal, but brick and concrete will block the signal. If there are brick walls, concrete floors, and large trees in between the camera and receiver, then t signal strength will be weak.
- High-Definition HD CCTV :
- High definition (HD) CCTV security cameras fulfill the need for high-resolution imaging, essential for many surveillance purposes. 360 Vision Camera of high definition (HD) pan tilt zoom (PTZ) CCTV surveillance cameras will provide full 1080p IP images for viewing and recording in the control room.
- An HD analog camera is a special type of analog or CCTV security camera that can record surveillance video in high definition (HD). To install a new HD analog camera in the place of an existing CCTV system, you will need to use an HD DVR with the ability to handle the HD video files.
- HD refers to cameras with a standardized resolution of 720p or 1080p. The numbers 720 and 1080 refer to the horizontal resolution.
- The HD video format also uses an aspect ratio of 16:9 (rather than 5:4 or 4:3), and the frame rate is standardized at 60, 50, 30, or 25 frames per second (the fps is based on the TV Frame).
- The main advantage of using HD CCTV is that it does not require specific modification for existing CCTV systems which are designed for analog cameras that are using a composite NTSC or PAL video, for which extensive cabling and labor were invested for installing the original analog system.
- The coaxial cables used for the analog system, that are having specific unused data spectrum available, it is a simple matter to just replace/modify the camera and the recorder for obtaining a higher resolution that is near with higher details (1920×1080 vs 640×480) than the original camera system.
- Since coaxial cable is capable of carrying a hundred HDTV channels simultaneously, there is still more unused data capacity available for future resolution improvements.
Thermal Heat Detection CCTV Cameras:
- A thermal camera is a non-contact device that detects infrared energy (heat) and it is converted into a visual image.
- The first thing to know about thermal cameras is they don’t work like regular cameras. Regular daylight cameras and the human eye both work on the same basic principle: visible light energy hits something, bounces off it, a detector receives the reflected light and then turns it into an image.
- Thermal imagers make pictures from heat, not visible light. Heat (also called infrared or thermal energy) and light are both parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, but a camera that can detect visible light won’t see thermal energy.
- Thermal cameras capture infrared energy and use the data to create images through digital or analog video outputs.
- A thermal camera is made up of a lens, a thermal sensor, processing electronics, and a mechanical housing.
- The lens focuses infrared energy on the sensor. The sensor comes with a variety of pixel configurations from 80 × 60 to 1280 × 1024 pixels or more. This is the resolution of the camera.
- These resolutions are low in comparison to visible light imagers because thermal detectors need to sense the energy that has much larger wavelengths than visible light, requiring each sensor element to be significantly larger.
- The thermal camera usually has a much lower resolution (fewer pixels) than visible sensors of the same mechanical size.
- Some Important specifications to be considered while choosing a thermal camera that contains resolution, range, a field of view, focus, thermal sensitivity, and spectral range.
- Heat sensed by an infrared camera can be very precisely measured, allowing for a large variety of applications. A FLIR thermal camera can detect tiny differences in heat as small as 0.01° and display them as shades of grey or with a different color.
- Everything we encounter in our day-to-day lives gives off thermal energy even ice. The hotter the material is the more thermal energy it emits. This emitted thermal energy is called a “heat signature.”
- When two objects are placed next to each other will have even subtly different heat signatures, they show up quite clearly to a thermal sensor regardless of lighting conditions. This allows thermal cameras to see in complete darkness or smoke-filled environments.
- Thermal cameras can see many things that are not visible to our eyes or regular cameras can’t see but can be blocked by some suspicious materials.
- The potential uses for thermal cameras are nearly limitless. They are Marjory developed for surveillance and military operations.
- Thermal cameras are now widely used for building inspections (i.e. moisture, insulation, roofing, etc.), fire fighting, autonomous vehicles and automatic braking, skin temperature screening, industrial inspections, scientific research, and much more.
Assemble of CCTV Camera:
Mounting the camera
Placing the camera unit at a required place, then make guide marks for drilling. Drill holes and hammer in the screw moldings. Now, screw the camera in the desired place properly. Insert the power cable of the camera in a socket.
Placing the DVR
DVR of the CCTV is the place where the surveillance hard disk is present. In all CCTV recordings, the DVR is Placed inside of it. It is highly recommended to keep the DVR inside a cabinet with a lock. so that even if any suspicious person spots the DVR, they can’t able to destroy the recorded videos. This is the most important step to ensure a bulletproof security system for your home.
Managing the cables
Plan the pathway for all the cables from the cameras to the DVR unit. Use wire moldings to keep the cable managed and safe. Fix the moldings along the path by nailing and keeping the surveillance cable inside.
Connecting the wires
The video cable is connected through a BNC port. Remove about 1.5cm of the outer covering of the video cable which should be e along the path exposed to the braids. Slide the crimping barrel onto the cable with a wider diameter facing towards the end of the cable.
Now remove the white insulator covering the innermost cable. Now insert these exposed cables into the BNC port and screw the crimping barrel. This makes a secure connection. Then Connect the DVR output port to the screen where the video to be displayed.
Power on the system
To Start the system we need to power ON the cameras, the display monitor, and the DVR. Setup the DVR according to the user manual provided with the DVR. Check through all the camera’s feed to confirm each camera is working properly or not and providing the Required viewing angle.
Disassemble of CCTV Camera:
Disassemble of IP Camera
First, remove the four screws at the bottom.
- The bottom lid is flat pulling it out.
- Now remove another screw that holds the mainboard.
- Disconnect the camera module wires.
- Disconnect the motor wires.
- Remove the antenna bolt and then push it down through the case’s hole.
- Remove the left-right limiter. It is used to determine the maximum left of right.
- Finally, we get the mainboard. I put the LR limiter into a plastic bag because it is soldered to the board.
- Remove three screws to release the bearing holder.
- Remove the motor’s screws.
- Next, pull to separate the upper part and lower part. The upper part fits tightly into the bearing, so you need to pull it a little bit harder.
- Remove four screws of the plastic gear.
- Remove the left and right parts holding the main camera. Here you don’t need any force to do it because they are loose after you unscrew the plastic gear.
- The right part has two screws holding the wires in place, unscrew them. There are wires from the right part to the main camera, they are built-in speaker cables. Do not pull. Leave them for now.
- remove two screws at the back of the main camera.
- Now you can disconnect the speaker wires from the camera module board.
- remove two screws holding the motor.
- next to the back of the motor you will find a limiter, pull it out. Its cables are grouped with the speaker’s cables.
- here the speaker is hot glued to the right case, I will leave it there together with the limiter.
- Connect back together with the main camera module case.
- These are the parts I took out from the camera; two stepper motors and a bearing remove 70% of the total camera weight.
- If u need the mainboard and the main camera module for my RC, removing its pan and tilt feature.
- The Bluetooth Panzer is controlled by an Android phone.
CCTV troubleshooting and repairing
How to reset the camera
You can lose all of your histories but this process will help to troubleshoot any issues. A factory reset can be done by pushing a paperclip into the pinhole reset button located at the back. The process of resetting will be differs depending on the type and model of the camera. By using a Setting Reset option in the menu or pressing a Reset button on the camera we can reset the camera. Based on the model of the camera, you can reset the network settings and the shooting settings. To find the operating instructions follow the below steps
- Type a model numberfor your camera.
- Find support for your camera either by entering your model number in the product support search box or browse for your model number.
- The operating instructions can be found from the manual tab of the model support page.
- Don’t turn off the camera while resetting is in progress.
- While using a model that supports Play Memories Camera Apps, when you perform Initialize or Setting Reset, applications downloaded to the product may be uninstalled.
- If you want to use these applications again, reinstall them.
- If you use this application all movies and photos are recovered
- If an error code comes like C: or E: is displayed on the camera’s LCD screen, resetting won’t be solving the issue.
- Next use the reset option in the menu.
- Menu→ Setup→ Setting Reset → Initialize →
For example, initialize procedure for DSC-RX10 is given below
- Next, the camera reboots, the time and date settings menu will be displayed
- Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the initial settings.
- For the shooting settings, do not select Initialize. Instead, select Camera Settings Resetor REC Settings.
- Locate the reset button on the camera
- First, identify the location of the reset button
- The reset button on a lens-style camera is near the Multi Terminal.
Then press and hold the resetT button for 2-3 seconds.
- Now release the reset button.
- Once the camera reboots, the time and date settings menu will be displayed.
- Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the initial settings.
Power and connection issues
Power and connection problem can by the disconnected lead .due to this the network will be currently down. The Internet protocol cameras are having the LED indicators .the LED indicators are used to transmitting data across to the network. This will be hidden inside the camera. the LEDs on the camera are not lighting up means you need to check camera power connections. If your camera will be powered by electricity and not a battery means then you need to check that the camera is receiving the required power.
How to find the IP address of your IP camera
- First Open the Configuration Manager
- Under My Device stab > press Network scan
- Search for the camera IP using its MAC address:
IP Helper is software .it is used for network configuration and licensing.IP Helper will be downloaded from the following links and be installed through the Mobile device or Laptop:
- IP Helper 1.0 for Windows
- IP Helper 1.0 for macOS
- IP Helper 1.0 for Linux
- Android Play store
- Connect your IP camera to the router through the physical cable
- Power on the camera
- Connect your PC to the router
- Open CMD: Start > search for “cmd”
- Type “arp -a” > press Ente
How to ping camera
You will be able to ‘ping’ the camera using your laptop or smartphone to test the strength of the connection. First, you have to keep your IP address. Type ‘cmd’ into a windows search engine you can see a DOS command prompt. When it’s open, you need to type in ‘ping’ and your IP address. If you see the ‘Request Time Out’ or ‘Destination Host Unreachable’ displayed on the screen. You need to check that the device is on the same network as your camera. if the camera on the network, try to connect using your browser.
Check Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) tables, it will be located on the outside of the camera. It is possible to cross-reference MAC and IP addresses using the ARP.
First, identify the model number of your DVR or NVR unit. The model number will be displayed on the sticker located on the bottom or side of the unit. All CCTV Security Pros model numbers begin with the prefix “CSP”. If you have identified the correct model number and firmware Browse the appropriate link and download the .bin file. Once the download is completed copy the .bin file to a USB Flash/Thumb Drive. Units with Build Dates.it requires you to rename the file to “update. In” before launching the upgrade.
The bin file has been transferred onto your drive .now you can connect the USB Drive to the two USB ports found on your unit. One can be found on the front panel and one can be found on the rear of the unit. After installation of the device goes to Main Menu – Setting -System -Upgrade. Click Start. Find and select the .bin file you transferred to the USB Drive and Click Start. Main Menu-Info -Version –Upgrade. After completing the system will reboot. Remove the USB Drive from your system. Change your passwords on your “admin” account. For assistance in altering your password please follow this link: https://www.cctvsecuritypros.com/content/pdfs/password-account-settings.pdf .checks that your camera is up to date. You can do this by connecting to VMS and accessing the camera’s web page.
How to reboot a camera
By using application
- Go to the “My components” in the “Settings” menu on your Somfy Protect application
- press the camera
- In the upper right portion of your screen, the “on/off” icon will give.
- press this and select “Reboot”
- If the “On/Off” icon does not appear, this means that the camera is currently disconnected.
- Sometimes it’s the first thing we do – turn the system off for 10-20 seconds and input your settings again.
- Manually you can do it by the camera is equipped with a battery; you cannot reboot it by unplugging it. The reboot key supplied with the user guide and inserts for half a second in the port .it will be located behind the camera. The camera will produce a sound, the LED light will flash and the camera will reboot.
Check the cables are straight and properly connected. Because if there are any knots or loose connection in cables this will create a problem.