EXTERNAL STORAGE IN MOBILE PHONES

Most digital electronic devices consist of external storage such as personal computers, laptops, smartphones, and smartwatches, Digital cameras, and CCTV. In the mobile phone, we have two types of storage options such as internal storage and external storage. All the media files or documents can also be stored on external storage. The files stored in the external storage can be attained by the user and other apps easily. For example – the app settings of the music player of your smartphone reside in internal storage, but the MP3 files that you download using that app are stored in external storage. Typically two kinds of external storage are there. One is not physically obtainable.it is stored in a part of memory on mobile phones .it can be approachable by the user. Another One is a physically removable and insertable SD card. It is called secondary external storage. This primary external storage has audio, video media files, documents, and pictures are stored in primary storage while you don’t have a physical external storage device such as an SD Card. secondary external storage includes Google Cloud, Dropbox, SD Card, external hard drives. Manually, we can remove and replace the SD card. But the primary external storage is built-in.
Beforehand EMMC, the first storage device is MMC multimedia Card.it is external solid-state storage .first multimedia card was disclosed by SanDisk and Siemens in 1997.
MMC consists of surface tangency low pin-count serial interface, inbuilt single memory stack subtract. The precursor of this low pin-count serial interface MMC is an earlier system-based high pin count parallel interface.
Typically, low pin count series interface MMC and high pin count parallel interface both were reveal based on NOR- flash-based technology. Ancient MMC was used a one-bit serial bus interface.
The first low pin count series interface MMC size was 24 mm × 32 mm × 1.4 mm .later, it had been increased too, 4 or 8 bits at a time. MMC can be used in most of the application such as computer, laptop, digital cameras,
MMCs are available in sizes up to Up to 512 GB. MMC was developed by JEDEC. For, 50 years, JEDEC has been running the microelectronics industry.it has been the global leader in developing open standards and publications.

EVOLUTION OF SECURE DIGITAL – (SD)

SD card evolution was started from the earlier Multi -Media Card (MMC) format. SD cards are somewhat wider than MMCs. SD cards size typically 32×24×2.1 mm whereas, SD cards transfer rate is in the range of 80–160 Mb/s.
Following this, mini SD and micro SD were created. frequent damage will be reduced by keeping electrical tangency present bottom side of the card, by this way we can restrict the SD card’s direct contact with the user.
MMC has been upgraded because of three main industries. Such as SanDisk, Panasonic, Toshiba. In 1999 SanDisk Panasonic and Toshiba were developed SD, LLC. This SD card format was revealed by SDA – SD Association. SD is a non-volatile memory card.
Based on SDMI –secure digital music initiative standard the high memory density SD card was developed. During the launch period of secure digital card, the Memory stick is launched by Sony. It is a DRM product. Digital rights management (DRM) is digital media. It will provide copyright protection to digital media systematically. The main function of DRM is to prevent illegitimate distribution again of digital media. Following this 1999 to 2000 secure digital card was developed by SanDisk, Panasonic, and Toshiba .industries

MINI SECURE DIGITAL CARD

  In March 2003 the mini-SD was launched by CeBIT AND SanDisk Corporation.
 CeBIT was the international largest interpreter computer expo.
 In 2003 SDA- Association has upgraded the mini SD with less form factor extension.
 This was the first step to develop SD for mobile phones.
 The new cards were designed for mobile phones.
 From 2000 to 2003 the mini SD and micro SD card development were initialized by the SDA association.

MICRO SD

 Micro SD is the smallest SD flash memory card. It was used in tablet, smartphone
 In 2004 the removable micro SD cards had been moving to the next up-gradation.
 It was a miniaturized secure digital memory card .it was called a T-flash (Trans flash).
 It was demonstrated from micro SD.
 In 2004, the chief technology officer –CTO of Motorola demonstrated the current memory card is not compact for mobile phones.
  It was software convenient.
  SDHC –secure digital high capacity and SDXC-extended capacity was developed based on this miniature technology

SDHC – SECURE DIGITAL HIGH CAPACITY

  CTIA is a merchandise organization.IT is a wireless communications industry in the United States.
  In 2005, Under CTIA Wireless, the SDA has produced the small form factor micro SD along with SDHC secure digital.
  SDHC working is distinguished from other earlier SD cards.
  After 2008, SDHC had been convenient.
  SD High Capacity (SDHC) card is called SDA 2.0. SDHC memory storage range is from 4 GB to 3 2 GB.
  It is based on the FAT32 file system.
  It has a high capacity of 2 GB with a minimum read and writes speed is 17.6 Mbit/s.
  On 2005 July 13, SanDisk launched the micro SD in the range of 32 MB, 64MB, and 128 MB.
  The Motorola Company launched the first mobile phone Motorola E398 was consist of Trans Flash micro SD.
  A camera and camcorder device uses SDHC cards.

  In 2006, the January SDA association have been improved SDHC storage capacities such as 32 GB and FAT32 file systems.
  In 2006 SDA has been revealed the specification about non-security consist parts of the SD memory card standard .whereas, SDA provides details about secure digital input-output (SDIO) card and SD host controller.
  From 2006 to 2008 the SDA association had been developed SDHC technology.
  The SanDisk Company was launched 4 GB mini. SanDisk Company developed mini SDHC and mini SD by its earlier invention such as SD and SDHC.
  SDHC Host Devices work with both SD memory cards and SDHC memory cards.

SDXC-SECURE DIGITAL EXTENDED CAPACITY

 SDA association adjoin with SDXC form in 2009.
  SD Extended Capacity (SDXC) card is developed from SD memory card. It is called SDA 3.0.
  SDXC memory card storage is 64GB to 2TB.
  SDXC- launched in 2010.
  It is the latest type of memory card. It has high speed and capacity. It uses for full HD recording. It’s used in current days also.
  It’s worked based on the exFAT file system.
  exFAT -Extensible File Allocation Table is a file system introduced by Microsoft in 2006.
  It’s able to handle large-size files and large-size data’s up to 4 GB SDXC Host Devices Work with SD memory cards, SDHC memory cards, and SDXC memory cards.

SDUH-SECURE DIGITAL ULTRA CAPACITY

  SDUC memory cards always work with SDUC Host Devices. SDUH memory card more than 2TB to 128 TB.
  The SD Association has launched SDUC- secure digital ultra-capacity memory card.
  SDUC Host Devices serve with SD memory cards, SDHC memory cards, SDXC memory cards, and SDUC memory cards.
  In 2010 Toshiba released 64 GB .likewise, Panasonic released 64GB SDXC, Lexar released 128GB SDXC and SanDisk released 64GB.
  In 2011, 64 GB and 128GB were released by centon electronics.
  In 2012 Panasonic released full-size SDXC and SDXC UHS -11.
  In 2013, 256 GB SDXC has launched
  In February 2014, SanDisk launched the first 128 GB micro SDXC in 2018,
  PNY launched a 512 GB micro SDXC card.
  2018 Kingston announced the Canvas series for Micro SD cards which both are capable of capacities up to 512 GB.
  In 2019, Micron and SanDisk were launched 1 TB capacity SDXC cards

LATEST SD CARDS FOR MOBILE PHONES AT 2021

 Kingston Canvas React Plus V90 Card
  Samsung Pro Endurance 64GB
  Pioneer Premium 128GB micro SD.
  SanDisk Extreme A2 256GB.
  Samsung Evo Select 128GB.
  SanDisk micro SD Nintendo Switch 256GB
  Integral Ultimate Pro 128GB
  SanDisk Extreme A2 256GB

KNOW MORE ABOUT INTERNAL MEMORY

Internal storage means, while you download some app on your device it will create a singular folder on the device. This folder will be stored in internal storage. This folder only will be accessed by that app. this folder contains some file this cannot be got by other app or user.
The operating system and all android files cannot be getting by the user. If you want to get this file you need to root your mobile. But if you root you’re your mobile phone data’s will easily be hacked by others. Internal devices are very secure .stored data are not got by another app.
Phone internal storage will be accessed by Android OEM.OEM – means OEM referred to as original equipment manufacturer. In the smartphone industry, it means a company that manufactures their phones in their factories. Internal storage in mobile called EMMC and currently released UFS.

INTRODUCTION OF EMMC

EMMC development is not only focused on a single organization. MMC association, JEDEC, Samsung, SanDisk, and other organizations were involved to develop the memory storage technology into non-removable inbuilt chip types. IN 2006 EMMC was launched by JEDEC and MMC association. This chip comes with a solder ball on the backside .this solder ball will make a connection with printed circuit boards. This chip is known as Ball Grid Array. This embedded MMC has an inside flash memory controller.EMMC comes with 100 balls, 153 balls, 169 ball package. First EMMC released in different version EMMC 4.3, EMMC 4.4, EMMC 4.41, EMMC 4.5, EMMC 5.0, and EMMC 5.1. EMMC was used in all mobile phones and tablets used as main storage up to 2016. In 2009 EMMC 4.4 was developed and in 2010 E MMC version 4.41 had been developed by – JEDEC.
The primary storage device is a reduced need for an SD card. An Emmc acts as the primary storage .emmc consists of a parallel connection with the main circuit board. Emmc has a flash memory controller inside so that it reduces the risk of CPU handling data in storage. Because of emmc, the CPU burden will reduce.CPU working speed will increase.

APPLICATION OF EMMC:

 The mobile industry is the main user of EMMC. Day by day Emmc has been upgraded in the mobile industry. Samsung Company showing more interest to develop the largest capacity EMMC .this high capacity range is 128 gigabytes .it was used in a notebook computer.
 Currently, Emmc is used in many automation industries. It is used in the vehicle industry and navigation system development industry.
 SanDisk Company launched ruggedized emmc for the automotive industry.
 EMMC easily Support firmware update.
 Many of the health report devices use EMMC devices.
 Emmc is very secure for data storing and a secure removable type.

 EMMC 5.1

We have well-known Emmc is very supportive technology for next up-gradation. JEDEC group of the company have been launched EMMC 5.1.this will be designed with specified feature such as high performance with low cost.it is used on a wide range of applications such as digital computer mobiles, laptops, desktop, gaming industries, and navigation systems. The new EMMC 5. 1 is designed to provide improved performance. In 2019 the latest version of emmc 5.1 A released by JEDEC

FEATURES

Emmc 5.1 is very faster than an external SD card. Approximately emmc 5.1 is 26 times faster than SD EMMC 5.1 comes with 64 GB, 32 GB, and 16 GB.  Maximum speed 250 MB per sec.  Sequential data read/write 125 MB per sec  Random read /write 11000 IOPS – input-output operation per second.  EMMC 5.1 has specified design to do multitasking activities including the streaming and playback of UHD (Ultra High Definition) video content.  EMMC 5.1 has secured write protection .that means app developers only can attain the secured area of emmc.  It has a low-pin count, higher bandwidth, and multiple boot designs.   The 64GB emmc 5.1 has been delivering at a maximum speed of sequential data reading. 250MB/s. and 125MB/s for sequential data writing.

HOW TO FIND PROBLEMS IN EMMC

The first indication for damage in emmc is, we cannot do reset and wipe data. When the function of the mobile phone will slow down, you would do a factory reset or wipe data. If emmc is in the problem we can’t do reset or wipe data. If you are unable to do a reset. Next, surely you will go for flashing. Logo hanging is the main software problem. It occurs in many mobile phones. A mobile phone will not go into the home page. It will hang on the logo. This is also an emmc problem The application has stopped work after a notification message appears. This is also one of the emmc issues. When you try to install a new application, it won’t be installed. if it shows installation failure that is also an IC issue.

EMMC REPAIR

If your phone performance is slow. That is also might be an IC issue. This may happen to data overload. This may lead to a slowdown in Emmc IC performance. The first thing does a hard reset. The second thing uninstalls some unnecessary apps or deletes some unimportant files, photos, audio, and video to free up space. If Emmc IC is not recovered by the above steps, then do flashing. Flashing can be done in many ways. Android flashing tool is available on the internet. We didn’t need a software box for all the phones. Much software for android phones available on the internet. Through PC we can do flashing with a simple step. Flash File is nothing but operating system software. It’s designed to store files on Emmc memory. We can take a backup file from ROM. We can do Updates and downgrade mobile versions. We can Find errors and reset system software. We can root our mobile phone device. Rooting is not safe. Hacking will happen easily when you are rooting your mobile. Flashing is the procedure to refresh Android OS on the phone. While flashing we cannot get our data without loss. Once you root your phone, you cannot claim a warranty. Flash file having tool, file, driver within .some specialized tool are there to flash Samsung phones, Karbon phones, and Vivo, oppo. Lots of flashing tools are available on the internet. We need to choose the right one. Because some of the fake websites also there. so always choose some trusted websites. Virus infection also one of the main problems for mobile phones’ slow process. If you are visiting an unauthorized website or if you download an unauthorized app then your phone will be affected by a virus. This will corrupt your mobile phone Software. Sometimes you cannot connect your mobile phone to pc due to a virus problem. If your pc is unable to detect the mobile phone. When emmc is in problem PC won’t detect the mobile phone. , but you need to check if there is any problem with the USB cable .open your PC .go to disk management on pc .check emmc is detected or not. If emmc is a problem PC won’t detect emmc.

MOTHERBOARD FAULT

Without inspection under a microscope, you should not fix any IC or component issues. Sometimes a user may fall down the mobile .due to this component damage or IC damage may happen .so we need to check first visual inspection if any physical damage is there or not. Use a multi-meter to check short and open circuits present in the motherboard. Check by magnifier or scope to identify internal track damage.

SOFTWARE ISSUES

There may be a chance of software issues occur, due to accessing some unwanted apps and websites. Lack of mobile software update. Mobile can automatically update its software. When it’s alert, carefully give time for an update on your mobile phone. For example, for Samsung mobile it’s available in go to setting – software – install now successfully installed Sometimes touch and display hanging may happen because of software corruption .and sometimes due to virus issues, touch and display may slow down. We need to do flashing, firmware updates, etc. continuous flashing can be the reason for Android phones hanging. So do one or two times only. If you’ve recently dropped your phone that will lead to severe damage. Slow performance in touch, hanging, freezing, app not support is caused by software problems. Prevention:

Delete recently installed third-party apps. Recalibrate the touch screen. Reset the device.

NECESSARY ITEMS FOR FLASHING

First of all, we need three main items. Such as, Flash File  Flash Tool Driver

LIST OF FLASHING TOOLS

SPD –this is especially for spread Trump CPU. So download the spread Trum USB driver to use this SPD flash tool. Huie Download Tool is used for Qualcomm processor jio mobiles. Tecno Flash Tool is used to flash any Tecno phone. Odin Tool is used to flashing any Samsung android phone. It is best and simple to use. CMD Tool is mainly for Moto mobile. Here also we need to install the ADB driver. QGDP Tool is developed from the YGDP tool. And it is used to flash Qualcomm processor phone, with CPB file extension. We need to install ADB Driver. Rock chip Tool is used to flash tablet by Rock chip processor. This processor comes in a Chinese android tablet and we need to install an ADB driver.it makes communication between tablet and tool Upgrade Download Tool is used for Spreadtrum processor and installs SPD driver SP Flash Tool is used for  MTK processors. Download MTK USB driver Phoenix USB PRO is used for all winner processor .it’s mainly for tablet MTK is used for media Tek feature phones. Google Pixel Flash Tool is for Goole Pixel phones. Here, the Chrome Web browser has been used for Pixel phones. Q-Flash tool is used for Qualcomm Phone MSM download tool is used for Oppo and Vivo phones. GSM ALADDIN is used for the MTK processor. YGDP tool is used for Qualcomm processor and with. We need to install ADB Driver QPST tool is used for Qualcomm Phone MI Flash Tool is used for Xiaomi phones. Xiaomi. We need to install an ADB driver. I tunes and 3U tools for I phones. you can run I Care Data Recovery software to  get back files off the corrupted CF card, SD card, XD the card then formats the corrupted memory card.

LIST OF SOFTWARE BOXES

SFT DONGLE HYDRA DONGLE MIRACLE THUNDER DONGLE HCU + DC Phoenix Dongle Infinity-Box Dongle Z3X Replacement Smart-Card I Box Mini DFU Tool R-Sim 15+ Card for iPhone Magico Diag Tool QianLi I Face Matrix Tester DC UNLOCKER STANDARD DC UNLOCKER LITE BEST DONGLE SIGMA KEY SIGMA BOX WITH CABLE SET NCK DONGLE SMART CLIP 2 BASIC SET CS TOOL DONGLE Z3X BOX SAMSUNG EDITION Z3X BO SAMSUNG +LG EDITION Z3X BOX LG EDITION MEDUSA PRO BOX MEDUSA UPGRADE KIT AVENGER BOX AVENGER DONGLE UMT DONGLE NCK BOX WITH CABLE Chimera Tool PRO Dongle (Authenticator) Chimera Tool Samsung Dongle (Authenticator) HUA Dongle with HQT and HMI Activations EMMC PRO BOX EMMC BOOSTER TOOL RIFF BOX 2 NCK PRO BOX +UMT NAVI PLUS PRO 3000S Ali SIM Mini 7 Upgradable Card for iPhone Miracle Box with Miracle Key Dongle (4 Adapters Set) Z3X Box Pro Samsung Activated Golden Edition with Cable Set (30 pcs.) CS-Tool Dongle with S-Module Activated XTC 2 Clip with Power Adapter JC Pro1000S Multi-functional Phone Chip Programmer for iPhone BMT Pro Dongle Avator Pro Dongle GRT Dongle I POWER X Box Miracle FRP Dongle Hua Dongle Gold AE Tool eMMC Programmer Magico Box Easy-Box Dongle GSM Shield Box Jumars Dongle JC B-B BOX I FREE BOX Wikitech UFS Programmer Pandora Box Miracle Ninja eMMC Box MIPI Box Pro JCID I Detector JCID P7S BGA70 NAND Repair Programmer Z3X Easy-Jtag Plus Full Set JC ID J-Box Magico Oppo Tool Z3X Easy-Jtag Plus Full Set GcPro Key Furious Gold USB Key Lite R-Sim Dongle Updater AQUA DONGLE JC P11 BGA110 Programmer For iPhone BST Pro Dongle with Cables Octoplus Huawei Tool Dongle Z3X Easy-Jtag Plus Lite Upgrade Set Z3X Easy-Jtag Plus Lite Set UFI Dongle QianLi I Copy Plus 2.1 Generation, Programmer UFI Box Worldwide (International) Version EFT Pro Dongle JC V1S Programmer for iPhone MRT Dongle Medusa Pro II Upgrade Set I Repair P10 DFU Box NCK Pro Dongle (NCK Dongle + UMT) UMT PRO DONGLE UMT PRO BOX OCTOPUS FRP TOOL MAGICO IFACE TOOL BLACK BOX

HOW TO REBALL EMMC IC

First thing you need to remove EMMC IC. By using a blower we can remove IC. We need solder paste, blower to heat the emmc IC. Then we need BGA IC remover to remove heated emmc IC. Instead of a normal hot ait gun, the best equipment is BGA IC remover. It will preheat the IC without any damage. After removing IC we need to keep this IC in the ESD pouch until we do rebel. Necessary items for rebelling, 1. BGA rebelling kit 2. Stencil. 3. Led paste or solder ball First, remove the IC by using a hot air blower. Clean-up the IC with DE solder wick and solder paste. Use the stencil to place led paste on IC balls contact. Heat well with a hot blower. Keep temperature 200 degrees Celsius. Now remove IC from the stencil carefully. Now emmc is ready to fix on PCB.

UFS

SERIAL INTERFACE

In 2010 UFS- universal flash storage system is developed by JEDEC Corporation. It intends to bring higher data transfer speed and good reliability to flash memory storage. UFS is advanced technology as a replacement for eMMCs and SD cards. The electrical interface M-PHY, developed by the MIPI Alliance .this technology is used in UFS .it has a high-speed serial interface. The high-speed range is 2.9 Gbit/s per lane to 5.8 Gbit/s per lane. UFS includes the technology called a full-duplex serial LVDS interface it has higher bandwidths eMMCs. Universal Flash Storage is developed depends on the SCSI architectural model and supports SCSI Tagged Command Queuing. It’s come up with higher performance. UFS is adaptable for next-generation data up-gradation. Most of the UFS needs a large storage capacity for data boot code. UFS support for mass storage such as DSC, PMP, MP3, boot storage, and external card UFS provides higher performance in data transfer between host processors and mass storage devices. UFS is used in many applications such as Digital cameras, mobile phones, and other electronic devices. Universal flash storage (JESD220-2B) Universal Flash Storage (UFS) Card Extension Standard was upgraded. UFS 3.0 version aligned with version 3.0 removable memory card standard. JEDEC released complementary standards are UFS high-performance booster HPB (JESD220-3A), UFS host controller interface UFSHCI version 3.0(JESD223D), UFS unified memory extension version 1.1(JESD220-1A), UFS host controller interface, supporting unified memory extension version 1.1(JESD223-1B), UFS test (JESD224). In 2018 UFS 3.0 standards were launched. It’s mainly specialized to give 2x the bandwidth. The up-gradation of flash memory is supported by, Samsung, Micron, SK Hynix, Nokia, Sony Ericsson, Instruments, and other electronics companies. Universal Flash Storage is established depends on the SCSI model. it supports SCSI Tagged Command Queuing. In 2010, the Universal Flash Storage Association (UFSA) was created. In 2013, JEDEC released JESD220B UFS 2.0. In 2018 JEDEC released version 3.0 of the UFS standard, UFS has a higher data rate per lane is 11.6 GB bit/s. In 2020 JEDEC released UFS version 3.1 It performs Throttling Notification, fast Host Performance Booster, low power consumption, Write Booster, Deep Sleep.

FEATURES

UFS is come up with a High-speed serial interface. UFS has a High random read speed. UFS 3.1 is made up of Command Queue technology. Support queue technology is used to read and writes commands simultaneously. UFS is used in industrial applications. It has Industry-leading sequential read performance (600 MB/s. UFS is a high-performance storage device with low power consumption, ultra-fast boot capability, and good reliability technology. To attain the highest performance and most power-efficient data transport, UFS collaborates with the MIPI alliance. UFS version 3.1 versions have this collaboration to Reducing System Cost & Improving Device Performance. Mobile phones and other electronic devices utilize the universal Flash Storage (UFS) specified storage technology. The new version UFS will work on 2.5V .but the earlier version worked on 2.7V to 3.6V.

UFS FLASHING BOXS

Easy JTAG Plus Box Medusa Pro 2 Best Bo x Ufs Chip HWK uFs box

EASYJTAG PLUS BOX

JTAG Plus box is used for UFS memory connection. It is involved in the function of Identification, Multiple LUN access, Read, Write, and connect with UFS Memory attributes. Easy JTAG plus box speed is limited to 1.5Mb/sec and will be increased in the next up-gradation.EasyJTAG Plus Box having three types of BGA-type models. UFS BGA95 is used for Samsung mobile phones UFS BGA153 is widely used for all phones. UFS BGA254 it is used for UFS with PLDDR4

HOW TO MAINTAIN MOBILE PHONE IS HEALTHY

There are some steps we need to follow to keep mobile phones healthy.

Keep your all Backup and Your Photos on the desktop. Clean your gallery. Regularly. Avoid visiting the unwanted website. Put charge properly. Update your phone regularly when your phone show an update notification . Don’t download unwanted apps. Don’t open unwanted forward links or websites from a forward message from WhatsApp and Facebook. Check always any unauthorized have been installed without your knowledge. Use clean master to clean up unwanted files. Remove apps if you do not use them for longer.

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