EVOLUTION OF MOBILE PHONE

The Mobile phone becomes a part of the human, in recent days. Here are some interesting facts about how the mobile was invented and how it transformed from one generation (Mobile Phone) to another generation (Smartphone).

 The World’s first mobile phone was invented by Motorola and a demonstration was given in the year 1973 in New York City. They named that mobile phone DynaTAC  T call was demonstrated by Mr. Martin Cooper, a Senior Engineer in Motorola.  Later they launched the Dynastic 8000x commercially in the year 1983. At that time the weight of the phone was 1.1 kg.  In the year 1989, they launched the follow product DynaTAC 9800x. This mobile communication generation was mentioned as 1G (First Generation).  The First Generation of mobile communication technology was introduced in Japan in 1979 Later in America in the 1980s. The 1G supports the voice calls alone. It won’t support text messages.  The World’s first GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) supported mobile phone was Nokia’s 1011 which was launched in the year 1992.  This GSM technology was launched in 1991 in Europe. This Second Generation supports text messages.  The first text message was sent with the help of the Vodafone network in the year 1992.  The Nokia’s 1011 weigh about half a kilogram. This phone uses an LCD screen. The advantage of GSM is the user can make calls all over the world. This GSM technology communication was known as 2G (Second Generation).  In the year 1994, IBM launched the world’s first featured phone with a touchscreen and a lot of pre-installed applications like calculator, Calendar-Etc., and in the year 1996, Nokia launched the world’s first QWERTY keyboard phone named Nokia 9000 Communicator. This phone supports SMS, MMS, E-mails, and Fax. These mobiles use the Second generation (2G).  The world’s first multi-color display phone was the Siemens S10 phone which was launched in the year 1997.  In later 2000 RIM launched its Pager phone which supports e-Mails, text messages. It won’t support voice calls. Later the RIM was known as BlackBerry.  In 1999 Nokia Launches its sliding cover phone Nokia 7110. And this phone supports WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) browser. After this phone, Sharp launched the World’s first camera phone named Sharp J-SH04 in Japan, and in 2002 Sony Ericsson launched the T68i camera phone.  In 2000 Nokia Launched its 3310 phone which was very popular for its ringtone and snake game.  In 2003 3G (Third Generation) was started worldwide. This supports video calls and high-speed data compared to 2G. The speed was 0.2MB/S.  In 2005 Sony Ericsson launched its Walkman series W800 which was very popular for its sound clarity while listening to music. It’s a gift for music lovers. This phone came with a 2MP Camera with video recording, Bluetooth, and Infrared for file sharing. This phone has 32MB of internal memory also supports a 2GB memory card.  In March 2007 Nokia launched its N series, N95 an initiation for smartphone, with an internal memory of 160MB. At that time it was a very huge memory space whereas the other popular brands launched their phones with KB’s and 2 MB’s at max.  Also, N95 supports 8GB of expandable memory through memory cards. They launched this phone with a 5MP camera along with autofocus option Flashlight for the first time in the mobile sector. This camera supports manual adjustments like ISO, White Balance, and Contrast. This was the first phone which has a front-facing camera for video calls.  In 2007, Apple launched its first iPhone. In this phone, the traditional keypad was replaced with a touchscreen and stylish look and performance. But, officially the first full touch screen mobile was the LG’s Prada which hits the market. They have competition in resistive touch vs capacitive touch  In the year 2008, Apple launched its iPhone 3G and also Apple App Store to download and install the applications. The App Store was launched with 552 applications.  At the same time in 2008, the world’s first android phone was launched with Android Market for app purchases. Later the Android Market was known as Google’s play store.  In Feb 2009, the WhatsApp application was launched for instant texting and sharing pictures, videos, documents, voice calls, and video calls based on the internet call concept. After 5 years, Facebook bought WhatsApp for 20 billion US Dollars.  In Dec 2009, World’s first 4G networks were tested in the UK using the LTE (Long Term Evolution) Technology. But no phones were launched in the 4G network till 2012.  In 2010, Samsung launched its first Galaxy S phone with a Hummingbird processor and 16GB of internal storage with an AMOLED touchscreen. Later in 2011, Samsung launched its first phablet (Phone or Tablet) named Samsung Galaxy Note N7000 with a 5.3inch of screen.  In 2012, Apple launched its iPhone 5, which was the most sold phone. It was calculated 5 million units were sold at the time of launch. In 2012 it was everything with voice commands. Google launched its Google voice assistant firstly and later Apple launched Siri.  In 2013, Nokia Launched Lumia 1020. It was a massive camera phone with 41 MP cameras. It was the most powerful camera at that time. They market the product as an alternative to a digital camera. The Nokia Lamia phone was also known as a windows phone. Which uses the Windows 8 operating system?  In 2014 Apple launched iPhone 6 and 6plus brought with a sleek design and in 2015 Samsung launched its Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge, the best-looking smartphone with edge glass with fast charge support which can allow you to use for 4 hours just in 10 mins of charging. This phone also supports wireless charging technology but initially, it was developed by Nokia in 2013.  Then Google’s Nexus 6P was launched with Huawei which supports the 4K video recording in mobile phone also 240fps slow-motion video recording. And in 2016 Google launched its Pixel and Pixel XL with high-quality hardware and software which makes a very good quality camera phone which can take pictures similar to DSLR cameras. And right from there lot of Smartphone manufacturing companies enters the market and started launching huge numbers of mobile phones in upcoming years. It was a very good initiation by the companies.

Generation of Mobile Phones

Mobile phone generations were started from the zero generation system, that was mobile radiotelephone system. Mobile radio telephone systems were an ancient mobile system. it was a wireless telephone system that came beforehand the modern cellular mobile technology. Since the mobile radiotelephone system was the precursor of the first generation of cellular telephones. The mobile radiotelephone system was sometimes called a pre-cellular or zero generation system. Push to Talk- PTT technology used in the mobile radiotelephone system. Mobile Telephone Service- MTS, Improved Mobile Telephone Service -IMTS, and Advanced Mobile Telephone System -AMTS were some of the technologies used in pre cellular telephone technology. It was served as a part of commercial service.it was served as a public switched telephone network, with their telephone numbers. This precursor mobile telephone system differed from the closed radiotelephone system. Also, it serves as a part of a closed network such as a police radio and taxi dispatch system. This mobile telephone was used in cars and trucks it was also known as car phones. Mobile phone generation typically listed such as,

 0G-Zero generation  1G-First generation  2G-Second generation  2.5G- Second generation  2.75G- Second generation  3G- Fifth generation  3.5G- Fifth generation  3.75G- Fifth generation  3.95G- Fifth generation  4G-Fourth generation  4.5G- Fifth generation  5G- Fifth generation

1G-First generation

The first generation, wireless cellular technology (mobile telecommunications) is called 1G. 1G network is analog but 2G networks were entirely digital. But it also uses digital signaling to connect radio towers. The voice signal is encoded to a digital signal in 2g.but in 1G voice signal is modulated into a higher frequency. The frequency range is 150 MHZ and above. The maximum speed of 1G is 2.4 Kbps. It’s mainly built to provide Basic voice service to the customer. 1G was the starting point of cellular technology. In which cell land area was divided into small sectors known as cells. Each cell had a base station, which was used as radio signals and a transceiver for communicating with mobile devices. Base stations were connected to telephone networks. Frequency modulation techniques were used for voice calls by base stations.

Limitations of 1G

 Not compact in size and weight .heavy weighing around 3-4 kg.  Poor sound quality  Limited coverage  inefficient use of the spectrum;  Low capacity  In FDMA technology we cannot maximize system capacity  Different 1G systems clashing with one another, because of different frequency ranges.  No roaming supported  Weak security on-air interface.  Analog signals always have interferences. Due to interference communication was noisy.  Analog systems won’t be support for adequate encryption systems. Whereas, security was a vital issue and tapping could not be controlled  Only for corporate and executive use, we cannot use for personal use.   Very expensive, when it’s introduced its first mobile. Analog technology and the phones generally had a poor battery life The main distinction between the two mobile telephone systems is that the radio signals used in 1G network and its analog .whereas, the digital signal used in 2g. Compared to first-generation it provides a secure and reliable communication channel. 2G is surrounded by the technology of CDMA and GSM. SMS and MMS were introduced in 2G Technology. The second generation was allowed multiple users on a single channel via multiplexing .2G Cellular phones are used for data and voice calls. The 2G enfold with many of the essential services, such as SMS, internal roaming, conference calls, call hold, and billing based on services. The speed of 2G with GPRS-General Packet Radio Service is 50 Kbps. EDGE- Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution is 1 Mbps.

Different 2G technologies: 

Based on the type of multiplexing process 2G technologies can be divided into three categories: TDMA -Time Division Multiple Access CDMA -Code Division Multiple Access FDMA -Frequency Division Multiple Access

 Here phone conversations are digitally encrypted.  2G is initialized data service for mobile phones.  It starts from SMS -Short Message Service, which is plain text-based messages.  2G technologies compatible with the various mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages, and MMS-Multimedia Message Service.  The first main service is bearer services. It provides data services and communication.  The second generation is also known as Digital AMPS and used TDMA.

2.5 G-Second generation 

 A packet-oriented mobile data standard technology used in 2G and 3G cellular communication networks.  GPRS gives data rates of 56–114 Kbit/sec.   2.5G cellular technology is the combination of the second generation and third generation.  2G is combined with GPRS .this technology is also called 2.5G.  2.5G furnishes moderate-speed data transfer by using time division multiple accesses –TDMA.  EDGE was declared as a pre-3G radio technology.EDGE is a part of ITUs.   EDGE is standardized and 3GPP is part of the GSM family.  EDGE was developed for use in a part of the Digital AMPS network spectrum.   EDGE transfers higher bit rates per radio channel.  EDGE capacity and performance is better than ordinary GSM/GPRS connection.  EDGE is used in a packet-switched application and that is an Internet connection.   High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA). Peak bit-rate is 1 Mbit/s and generally bit-rates of 400 Kbit/s.

2.75 G- second generation

  2.75G is Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).EDGE is developed by 3GPP. It is a part of the GSM family. it is an upgraded technology. It gives advanced network operation with a high capacity of GSM/GPRS networks.   EDGE is developed with 3GPP. It is part of GSM technology. The EDGE provides higher data rates 236.8 Kbit/s by switching with the combination of coding 8PSK With GSM timeslots.   Main digital mobile phone technologies are Enhanced GPRS -EGPRS, IMT Single Carrier IMT-SC, or Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution.

3G-Third generation

Most advanced technology development will be started at the introduction of 3G.many internet of things such as Web browsing, email, video downloading, picture sharing, and other Smartphone technology were introduced in the third generation. Compared to other earlier technologies, 3G is a greater development consisting thing.it provides greater voice and data capacity Features

  It supports a wider range of applications. 3G provides large data transmission at a lower cost.   Each technology has been linked with other technology for next up-gradation. The 3G enfold with a new technology called  UMTS.   Based on IMT-2000 standard speeds of the 3G must be 2Mbps and mobile speeds are 384kbps.   It has many features such as Video-conferencing, Web and WAP browsing with higher speeds, IPTV support.   It provides higher data speed. 3G networks provide large speeds up to 3Mbps, high clarity audio, and video support.

3.5G -HSDPA

  It is upgraded High-Speed Uplink Packet Access .it is used for higher data transfer speed and capacity of 1.4, 1.9, 5.8 Mbps. Nokia initiated the HSUPA   HSDPA High-Speed Downlink Packet Access having a faster speed. 1.8, 3.6, 7.2 Mbps to 14 Mbps.   3.5G Gives new High-Speed Downlink Packet Access protocol.   3.5G is very faster in data transferring. It has a higher speed than 3G.

3.9G

  Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is developed based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies.   LTE is advanced technology with high capacity and speed using a different radio interface.   LTE is the combination of the upgraded path of both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks.   The various LTE frequencies and bands are used in various countries with multi-band phones.   LTE is sometimes known as 3.95G

 4G-Fourth generation

4G is an extraordinary unique technology. Compared to others like 1G, 2G, 3G this is the best one.  It’s mainly introduced to give high speed in performance, high quality, and high capacity compared to earlier technology. Features

  Its security system has been improved.   It is cost-effective.   Lower the cost of voice and data services.   It is economically cheap in the usage of multimedia and the internet.   4G includes much-secured technology is called  IP telephony.   based on IP technology 4G provides ultimate performance to provide the best video conferencing, gaming services, 3D television, and cloud, mobile TV.4G technology enfold with  MIMO -Multiple Input Multiple Output.   OFDM -Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing technology also includes 4G technology.   4G uses two main standards such as WiMAX and.LTE -Long Term Evolution.4g is developed based on UMTS technology. UMTS frequency range is 1800MHz.   4G network provides the maximum speed is 100 Mbps or 1 Gbps while the device in movement.   4G is faster than 3G.but, from the excitement the 4G technology 4G LTE was developed.   The main usage of 4G LTE is to give a fast download of a new game.   It is used to provide HD TV shows; you can do it without buffering.

OFDM- Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 

  OFDM is a multicarrier modulation. Many closely-spaced modulated carrier Signals are present in the OFDM.   Based on the modulation and demodulation, signal transmission happens between the sender and receiver sides.   Any form of signal like audio, video, and the data signal is applied to the carrier signal and it will be demodulated at the receiver side.   Whereas, the sidebands spread out each side. When the demodulation happens it’s necessary for OFDM the carrier spacing equal to the reciprocal of the symbol period.   Multiple carriers are called subcarriers .its carry the information stream and subcarriers are orthogonal to each other.   Some of the advantages of OFDM Very sensitive to avoid fading, not affected by interference, Spectrum efficiency, Flexible to ISI, Flexible to narrow-band effects, channel equalization is simple, sensitive to carrier offset and drift

5G- Fifth generation 

About 5G

  5th generation mobile network is the most advanced mobile network. 5G is mainly introduced to connect people, objects, machines virtually.   5G wireless technology able to transfer multi-Gbps peak data with high speed   It has ultra-low latency.   Very secure and more reliable. Network capacity is very high.   Performance-wise good because.it always available, with very little buffering. It’s higher in performance and more efficient to empower new user experiences.   5G is the biggest platform for consumers and business people.

Features

  5G is the biggest technology to meet business people and consumer requirements.   Among 1G,2G,3G,4G, Network 5G is the fastest network.   5G networks will also need to meet the needs of new users such as the Internet of things.   It also helps in broadcast-like services and lifeline communications in times of disaster.   5G will support Data rates of several tens of megabits per second (Mbit/s).   5G should be supported for tens of thousands of users.   Enhanced Spectral efficiency,   Large Coverage area enhanced Signalling efficiency, Less Latency compared to LTE   5G has a Bandwidth of 1,000 per unit area.   Enhanced download and upload speeds.4 milliseconds in ideal circumstances and at one millisecond for Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication -URLLC.   5G support up to 10 GB per second.

Mobile Phone Parts

Battery The battery is one of the main sources of power supply to a mobile phone. Three types of battery are mostly used in mobile cell phones and Tablets: Nickel – Cadmium -Ni-CD Nickel Metal Hydride -Ni – MH Lithium-Ion -Li – Ion Battery Charger Use always mobile phone own chargers. Many types of Chargers are there to charge the battery. Normal battery chargers come with 1AMP, 2AMP. Turbochargers, Travel Adaptor, dash chargers are some of the charger types. Antenna An antenna is used as the medium to send and receive radiofrequency. It is present on all the edges of PCB .it is in golden color. It is mounted on PCB by using a led. Switch or Key Powers, volume up and down keys are present right or left side of mobile phone Central Processing Unit CPU is one of the biggest IC in mobile phones. CPU is the main IC that controls all functions and coordinates with all program instructions.it will get a command from the user and process it. The CPU is protected with some black glue or white glue. The CPU is the Main Control Section of a mobile phone, both Android smartphones and Apple iPhones have a CPU.CPU sends a control signal to all IC like flash memory IC, power IC, audio IC, speaker IC.CPU has been manufactured by some of the industries. Its brand name such as Qualcomm, Broadcom, Spreadtrum, Snapdragon, Intel, etc. RAM The Random Access Memory is one of the biggest IC in mobile phones. It is mainly responsible for sending and receiving operating system commands while the phone is being operated. Its stores OS. It can be found the near CPU. RAM is an erasable memory where older data and information can be erased and new data and information can be stored. ROM Read-only memory also one of the biggest IC in mobile it’s the Read-Only Memory.ROM is the internal storage memory card. We can say it as a mobile phone hard disk. It is used to store mobile phone system files, pictures, audio, video documents. Etc. when power is lost it will not lose data. if we enlarge the ROM size then the data storage will be increase. We can enlarge the memory space by using software and also hardware replacement. It cannot be erased. Programmable ROM and Erasable ROM are some other types of ROM memory that can be erased. Display

The display of a cell phone can be classified as follows: 

TFT:

  TFT – Thin Film Transistor technology.   It’s made by cell technology.   TFT is also known as dual-transistor pixel DTP.   It is a variant of a liquid-crystal display.   It consists of thin-film-transistor technology.   It is mainly used to improve image quality.   Compared to other earlier generation LCD TFT LCD offer better image quality and higher resolutions.   The disadvantage of this display is poor visibility in direct light or sunlight.   Another disadvantage is large power consumption.   So the battery will discharge easily. But it’s economically compatible.   Hence it comes with lower budget phones and feature phones.

IPS-LCD:

  IPS -in-plane switching is a technology.   This screen technology is used in liquid-crystal displays.   It was designed to avoid the twisted nematic field effect matrix.   It is considered being a low-performance screen because of its viewing angle dependence and low-quality color reproduction.   Accurate color from all viewing angles is one of the advantages in is this display. This LCD won’t show lighten or show tailing when touched.   This is important for touch-screen devices, this technology is used in smartphones and tablets.   IPS LCD provides clear images and stable response time.   IPS LCD will consume 15% more power than others.   IPS LCD is very expensive than others.   IPS LCD will take more response times.

RESISTIVE TOUCH AND DISPLAY:

  A resistive touch screen has multilayers.   Two types of touch screen LCDs are there.   The touchscreen has two layers with a conductive material and a small gap between them.

CAPACITIVE TOUCH AND DISPLAY:

  A capacitive touch screen consists of an insulator coated transparent conductor.   A capacitive touchscreen consists of a layer of glass coating transparent conductor.   A capacitive screen is more responsive than resistive screens.   That is why capacitive screen found in high-cost phones.

OLED TOUCH AND DISPLAY:

  OLED -Organic Light Emitting Diode is the latest technology used in mobiles and monitors for display.   OLED is better than LCDs.OLED provides a fast response.   It also provides a wider viewing angle with good brightness.

TYPES:

  Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode   Super AMOLED

TYPES:

  Matrix organic light-emitting diode is one of the types of the OLED display.   OLED is a thin-film-display technology.   It has organic compounds.   In which electroluminescent material is present.   It is used in the latest smartphones in Samsung Galaxy, Apple mobile phone brands.   The AMOLED display quality is higher than the OLEDs.   It consists of an additional layer of TFTs.   The AMOLED displays are very flexible than the OLED display.   But it is costlier than the OLED display.

Antenna Switch An antenna switch is used to transmit and receives network signals such as SIM network, 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G. It is used to receive the signal and switch different frequencies like GSM, DCS, and PCS. RF IC RF IC is used to perform the function of amplification of receiving signal and demodulation. VCO -Voltage Control Oscillator It is used to control the oscillation frequency by controlling its input voltage. The applied input voltage will decide the instantaneous oscillation frequency. Audio IC The main function of this IC is to control the audio frequency and produce sound. This IC section has speaker IC also present .its includes speaker, mic, and ear speaker control. UEM IC -Universal Energy Module This is also one of the biggest IC in PCB. It performs many functions like power supply, charging, audio processing, ringer, vibration. etc. LED -Light Emitting Diode A light-emitting diode is used to produce light on the keyboard and display. RF Crystal oscillator Crystal oscillators are used to give a stable and accurate RF signal to the IC. If this crystal oscillator is dead, the motherboard will be in dead condition. These crystal oscillators are produced 13 MHz, 26 MHz, 19.2 MHz, or 36.4 MHz. this frequency is used in cell phones. Ear Speaker This Ear Speaker is placed on the top side of the mobile phone. It is used to convert an electrical signal into an audio signal from the mic.it gives sound during incoming calls. Microphone MIC converts voice signal to electric signal. And send this signal to the speaker This signal is then sent to the Audio IC. Vibrator Motor Vibrator Provides vibration alert during incoming calls or messages in silent mode .in IPhones it is also called a tactic vibrator SIM card SIM stands for Subscriber Identity Module. In which a microchip present inside. This card has all data and information related to the user. SIM card Socket SIM card Socket Holds the SIM card. And its act as a SIM card reader and writer. Memory Card A memory Card is an External memory storage device .it is used to store data such as photos, videos, audio documents, etc. Some SD card types, Mini SD Card and Micro SD cards are used as external memory. External Antenna Socket An external antenna is placed with the help of accessories, frames, back covers. Its Hands-free Connector Hands-free Connector is used to carry on an easy conversation without holding the Phone .and without keeping headphones. Flash IC This is the one the biggest IC in PCB .this IC act as the hard disk or mobile phone. It stores an operating system that is software. All internal storage such as audio, video, data, files, non-volatile data will be stored in this IC. USB Connector Charging connectors available in many types such as A-type, B mini type B micro and, C type. This connector is used for charging, data transfer, and currently added additional usage that is OTG support. Joy Stick It came in earlier phones. It is Used to make the operation is very easy for the user. Users can control the operation of a cell phone by setting the functions of the joystick. TX Filter This component is responsible for filtering electronic signals or frequencies. This filter is work coordinate with the RX filter. When this component is faulty the network may be noisy.

Power Amplifier or P.F.O

Normally power frequency oscillator is used to amplifies the signal.it acts as a filter.

  Soldering Station.   Hot air blower   Soldering Iron.   Led paste   Jumper wire   Solder paste   IPA solution   PCB Holder / PCB Stand.   Solder Wire.   MultiMeter   Antistatic Mat (ESD Mat)   Microscope or Magnifier.   Magnifying Lamp.   BGA re-balling kit

What is the Dismantling procedure for the mobile phone?

  Remove the back cover off first. On some phones, the back cover may be fixed by using glue .in this case we need to heat the mobile on the backside by using a blower or touch and display separator.   In some mobile phones, we need to disassemble the phone from the front side. Touch and display we need to remove in this type of mobile phone.   Remove the battery very carefully. If it is in the build battery use separate tools to remove the battery or else use glue remover to remove the battery.   Remove the small screws located on the back cover and motherboard by using a screwdriver. Ensure all screws are removed because some screws may be covered by stickers.   Remove all soldered strips and wires .that is mic, speaker, and ringer wires.   Unplug all connectors that are attached to the circuit board. Different types of connector are there such as lock type connector press button type connector  Remove network cable very carefully at both motherboard and sub-board.   Remove the motherboard carefully. If any lock or screws present in the motherboard .remove it   Remove all accessories like front and main camera, board to board strip, ringer, and speaker.   Finally separate the display screen from the middle frame.   Touch and display combo separated by touch and display separator.

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