Questions to Ask while Hiring a Professional for Laptop Repair

nfc-technology1
  • NFC – Near field communication technology. wireless radio frequency communication happens between two chips with each other by touching them closer together.
  • Its work under the principle of electromagnetic induction.
  • NFC devices act as active components or one is active another one is passive when the phone closer together the magnetic field will be created between the devices when it’s close to the antenna so that two NFC devices act like inductive coupling devices. 
  • The transmit antenna is the primary inductor and the receiving antenna is the secondary inductor.
  • When we apply the current through the NFC chip then it will generate a magnetic field. This magnetic field can induce current in nearby placed NFC chip that is another inductive device.
  • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)tags work on electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling concepts .it has tag and reader both tag and reader act as inductive coupling device. It provides single way communication
  • NFC provides two-way communication.
nfc-operation-modes

NFC operation modes

there are three operation modes in NFC. each mode has different types of communication

  • Peer-to-Peer- In this peer-to-peer mode data communication happens between two NFC-enabled active devices.
  • Reader/Writer- In this reader/writer mode data is copied from NFC tag to cell phone or vice-versa.
  • Card Emulation-the data is copied from an NFC-enabled mobile device to NFCReader. in which we don’t need the physical objects and providing access control through the user’s corresponding smartphones. this mode of NFC technology is widely among the users.

Features of NFC:

  • The NFC tag present in most smartphone devices such as Google Nexus, Apple smartphones, HTC phones,realme, mi,redmi, oppo, Vivo, one plus,poco,jio, etc.
  • the Data Communication happens between two mobile devices.
    instructions  can be programmed on NFC Chip and phone can function as per programming done on NFC device
  • Payments can be done very easily.
  • we can pay for Tickets and Boarding passes for airlines and buses
  • the NFC tag machines used for Opening doors in the office can be done using NFC compliant security badges, this increases the security of the premises.
  • many of the vehicles like Cars BMW come with NFC compliant keys.
  • it has theBandwidth of 14 kHz
  • Two Way Communication happens between the two devices.
    Data Rate is 106 Kbps, 212 Kbps, 424 Kbps
  • it is used in the  Applications of  Online payments, E-Ticket Booking
  • NFC chip is wireless ic configuration
  • It’s working at a distance of a max of 10 cm.
  • NFC communicates between the reader and tag.
  • NFC works in the 13.56MHz RF Carrier Frequency.
nfc-application

Applications

  • power consumption. NFC tag save your battery
  • Internet of Things
  • Mobile banking Social networks
  • Authentication App stores analytics.
  • Smart meters
  • Home automation 
  • Payments NFC payment used as virtual credit /debit card
  • Security entry -If you have asmart lock in your home you can use an NFC tag to lock 
  • Transaction security.
  • There is no need for physical touch. it’s a very hygienic and risk-free transaction  With the use of NFC in the smartphones will be used instead of a wallet, credit cards, debit cards, etc.
  • in contactless transactions, the electromagnetic wave from the reader will be used as the energy source, and wireless communication like NFC will be used for data exchange at the same time.
  • This NFC is used for electronic payment. in which the SIM card acts as a contactless smart card while the user’s smartphone acts as a mobile wallet.
  • The NFC will be used to keep records of information about the people such as medical history, medical records. this will reduce the time loss .due to this we can get an accurate report.
  • Contactless ticket booking reduces the risk of parking garages, transportation gates. due to this, all consumers can use public transport .due to this traveling will be comfortable and fast. very comfortable of choosing sources and destinations compared to the present format.
  • the wastage of resources such as, paper and time making it an eco friendly,
  • this is used in hotels to provide better monitoring by using NFC Automated Check-in system and check out system .in which the NFC-enabled smartphones will be used as a room key in hotels.
  • this will make the check-in and check-out procedure free of standing in queues and waiting. in which the person no need to for allotting or guiding visitor.
  • due to NFC monitoring directly enter their allotted rooms after making a booking and in return receiving a soft-key to their rooms
  • NFC is used for advertisement .it is used for Information that can be exchanged regarding products using posters saved in a tag.
  • this will be easily be accessed using NFC by the reader at the reader’s convenience anywhere and anytime…
  • in which the reader doesn’t need to stand in front of the poster to making everybody’s attention. the information will not be limited.
  • there is no worry about according the size of the banner and visibility.
  • while transferring documents from one laptop to another laptop by using novel technologies, such as Bluetooth or Wi-Fi. it needs manual setup. time delaying process.
  • the document will be transferred by touching both laptops. it is providing easy connectivity between two gadgets.
  • This will be involved in Electronic voting.
  • in which a vote can be placed by any person from anywhere using a secured application.
  • the NFC is used in devices such as Rhythm Track that tracks a person’s ECG and Sleep Track.
  • in which tracks the sleep cycle and duration.
  • FITBIT (a fitness monitoring company) has included the NFC for transferring details such as, how many calories have burned, how many steps have been taken.
  • it performs the Tasks such as, daily like snoozing off the alarm and switching on wifi or hot spot and sending wake-up messages will be stored in a smart tag.
NFC Bluetooth RFID infrared
The  NFC Maximum cover range is 10 cm The Bluetooth Maximum cover range is 100 m The RFID Maximum cover range is 3m 5m
NFC has 13.56MHZ RF carrier frequency Bluetooth has a 2.4 GHz RF carrier frequency RFID has RF carrier frequency will vary 430 THz down to 300 GHz
It provides dual-way communication It provides dual-way communication It provides single way communication both
Data rate is 106,212,424 Kbps The data rate is 22 Mbps The data rate will vary 115 kbps
It is used in credit card related payments, e-ticket booking

· It provides the communication happen between phone and peripherals. It is used in laptops and notebooks.

· It is used in PDAs (personal digital assistants).

· It is also used in printers.

· It is almost used in wireless communication (WAN).

·  Bluetooth is used in wireless headsets.

· Bluetooth is used to transfer files, images, and MP3 or MP4 between cell phones.

 

· It is used in EZ-Pass, tracking items. Attendee Tracking.

· Materials Management.

· Access Control.

· IT Asset Tracking.

· Tool Tracking.

·  Logistics & Supply Chain Visibility. Winning in the supply chain means increasing efficiency, reducing errors, and improving quality.

· Item Level Inventory Tracking.

· Race Timing.

 

Infrared is used in night vision equipment. Thermography, Hyperspectral imaging, Infrared tracking, infrared emissions to cool building, Thin film metrology

Infrared vibrational spectroscopy, Infrared cleaning

 

 

How good is NFC transaction?

  • NFCis very supportive for when we don’t have no Wi-Fi or carrier signal, or don’t have a cable to do a PC transfer or out of credit, or out of data. an NFC connection is started once you enable the NFC option.
  • NFC secure by virtue process. And it’s very short range.  If a hacker needs to hack your NFC signal, he must be very close to your NFC signal very close .so always aware if any stranger comes close to u when you do a payment transaction. it is very user-friendly.

NFC limitations

It is a very useful wireless option, but the only limitation is short-range It’s working at a distance of max 10 cm support. This limits its application. Major hardware manufacturers outside of Motorola, Nokia, and Philips are not yet supporting it due to its less demand and popularity. A recent survey concluded that 60 % of the population had not yet heard of NFC

Lack of information about NFC is another challenge which needs to make people aware about how to make payment by their mobile phones instead of credit cards, debit cards or cash.

As NFC uses radio waves for data transfer there can be some possible security attacks while transmission or transaction which can be categorized as Eavesdropping, Data corruption, Data modification, Imposter attacks(man in the middle), and Theft (NFC device is stolen).

People find selfish benefits out of every new technology. The same is the case with NFC where fraudsters can direct victims to the wrong website by replacing original tags at public places with their corrupted ones.

There is an urgent need for a secure channel and complex data encryption techniques along with device protection using a code or password to avoid the above-mentioned security attacks.

Using NFC devices can affect personal privacy as someone could read the UID of an NFC tag from a distance and identify the people in and out time when the same phone passes at a later time.

NFC’s operating range is just 10 cm as inductive coupling works for short distances, compared to Bluetooth’s 10 meters and Wi-Fi’s 100 meters.

The maximum data transfer rate for NFC is 424 Kbits per second making it unsuitable for a large amount of data transfers, compared to Bluetooth’s 3 Mbps and Wi-Fi’s 54 Mbps.

Mafia Fraud attack or the relay attack can defeat the protocols with an assumption of proximity by placing two special communication devices (called the “ghost” and the “leech”) between the victim reader and the victim tag. This range extension by the attackers can lead to a high level of insecurity especially in the case of NFC-enabled transactions.

NFC enabled mobile phones

The latest mobile phone has an NFC option. which works NFC-CHIP devices to interact with NFC-CHIP objects.

Some of the Samsung smartphone models supported NFC and had Android Beam function

Example; the Galaxy S8, Galaxy S8+, Galaxy S9, Galaxy S9+, and Galaxy S10, S10 G5, S10+, etc

Huawei recent smartphone comes   with NFC chips, Android Pay

Xiaomi’s Mi6X and Mi8 consist of an NFC chip, and Android Pay and Beam function

NFC in apple phones Apple Pay, when placing your finger on the home button, which houses the Touch ID function, or double pressing your power button to scan your face with Face ID.

It also works with Google Pay and Samsung Pay. Before iPhones couldn’t scan NFC tags until iPhone 7, we need to install a 3rd party app to use NFC. Now Apple has slowly been adding NFC functionality to its latest devices.

mobile-phones

How to quickly turn on NFC:

To access your quick settings, Swipe the top screen.

  • NFC option will be given above
  • Just press it.   You will access NFC

nfc

NFC troubleshooting

First, you need to enable the NFC option in a mobile phone on both devices in the android phone (Settings > More>NFC).

In iPhones

  1. Go to the settings
  2. Go to the communication settings.
  3. Change the NFCsetting
  4. Exit the settings.

Go to the file you wish to send. Tap the devices together. Put the devices back-to-back, and when it asks to confirm the transfer just PRESS “touch to beam”.

In Settings > More, make sure NFC is enabled.

If NFC is not enabled or NFC is detected but unable to do the transfer that could be considered as an NFC problem. 

NFC stop works on your mobile:

  • Nfc stops working you need to make Sure NFCand Android Beam Are Turned On.
  • you should also check if both NFCand Android Beam options are working on your mobile without any freeze or showing app not support in your device.
  • Just reset mobile .it will be ok

Solution For NFC Issues In Mobile Phones:

  • First, do a soft reset. go to devices (Settings > Account and Backup>factory data reset)
  • Several problems will be short outed by doing a factory reset or hard reset your phone.
  • Factory Reset will restore your Android device to the stage where it was started in the factory.
  • This indicates that all installed applications, software, passwords, accounts, and other personal data that you may have stored on the internal phone memory will be cleaned
  • you should aware that a factory reset will erase all the data on your phone
  • if your wats to back up your contacts, pictures, videos, documents and anything else you won’t avoid losing.
  • the settings are pre-installed by the manufacturer, so they won’t be lost
  • If the problem is not solved do a hard reset.
  • Check NFC IC and its nearer components’ components is fault change components otherwise change NFC IC
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